• What are the demographic patterns found in Perak?
• What are the challenges faced by Perak in terms of population?
• What should be Perak’s future demographic management policy?
For the last five decades Perak’s population towards Malaysian totality has been shrinking, from 15% in 1970 to 8.1% in 2014. Now, it only covers 2.4 million people of the national population distribution of 30.26 million. This is depicted in Figure 1.
Further to this, the main ethnic composition in Perak has also changed. Firstly, the mean growth rate of Bumiputra has been 1.4%, while for the Chinese was 0.005% and Indians 0.3%. The total population in Perak stands at 2.46 million people in 2014, comprising of 55.7% Bumiputra, 28.7% Chinese and 11.7% Indians. While in 1990’s the Bumiputra was at 50.7%, Chinese 34.5% and Indian 13.3% (Figure 2).
Negative growth was observed amongst the Chinese from 1983, as high rate of outward flow was seen from the demographic data. While Indian ethnic group had stayed at the same level. This growth pattern can be contributed the high migration of Perakians out of the state, especially amongst the Chinese.
Migration survey by the Department of Statistics Malaysia in 2012 to 2013 shows detail population movement from Perak to other states in Malaysia. From Figure 3, the out flow of Perakians are mainly to Selangor (4.9 thousand), followed by Penang (3.2 thousand) and Johor (3.0 thousand). The immigration (inflow) shows that the highest is from Selangor (4.0 thousand), Kuala Lumpur (1.4 thousand) and Kedah (0.9 thousand).
OVERALL RECOMMENDED POLICY FOR PERAK
A sustainable population growth is necessary to keep the GDP of the Perak at a viable increment. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the workforce within and distributed well amongst the age-groups and ethnicity.
It is recommended the flow of people group be studied in detail, and attractive workforce programs and policies to be designed to keep Perak economic growth at a healthy state.
Map 1 and map 2, show the popular states for migrations. Attractions from these states, eg. Selangor, Penang and Johor can be drawn into Perak to bring back the population and keep Perak triving.